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Shin splints: Shin splints are when you experience pain along the shin bone (the bone at the front of the lower leg between the knee and the ankle), caused by inflammation and tiny fractures (microfractures) in the surface of the bone. Shin splints are common in any sport involving running and are usually caused by too much training too soon, although they can be caused by running on a hard surface or by running in shoes that do not have enough support for the foot and ankle.

Feet changing shape: Some people are born with odd shaped feet however the majority go through an imperceptible change as consequence of bad habits and or inappropriate footwear either way structures in the feet are over loaded and usually the forefoot spreads and or toes twist and buckle. The solution is to create an orthotic which gradually realigns the joints in the feet and for that to work there has to be a marked improvement in overall posture.

Ingrowing toe nails: An ingrown toenail is one where the edge or corner of your nail grows down and cuts into the adjacent skin of your toe, leading to your toe becoming red, swollen and tender (inflamed). Your big toe is most likely to be affected, either on one or sometimes both sides. Your toenail curves and cuts into your skin causing your toe to be tender, especially when you walk on it. If left untreated, the inflammation can spread to the rest of your toe and the area becomes infected and may ooze pus.

Hammer Toe: This is a lesser toe deformity (excludes the big toe which is known as the hallux) that usually occurs on the second and third toes. There are three bones in the lesser toes. With this condition, the first bone sticks up (dorsiflexion) and the bone in the middle goes down (plantarflexion), making the joint between the two more prominent. The joint misalignment may over time become fixed. Initially they are usually trouble free however when fixed, painful conditions may occur; both at the joint and the base of the toe.

This condition may arise from local trauma, conditions associated with base of the toe (metatarsal head) however it is usually associated with a forefoot instability and is frequently seen when there is a bunion (hallux abductovalgus).

Hallux rigidus: Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the big toe, and with time it gets increasingly harder to bend the toe. "Hallux" refers to the big toe, while "rigidus" indicates that the toe is rigid and cannot move. In acute phases it may become increasingly more painful. When the joint is virtually rigid pain usually goes away however an adjacent joint frequently then starts to cause pain and discomfort. The causes of this condition are multifactorial; varying direct trauma e.g. stubbed toe or ill fitting footwear to a body that is musculo-skeletally out of balance.

Low back pain: Pain in the lower back area, may relate to problems with the lumbar spine, the discs between the vertebrae, the ligaments around the spine and discs, the spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, or the skin covering the lumbar area.

Clumsiness: Awkward in movement or action. There are frequently psychological as well physical factors that have to be addressed.

Painful toe joints: These are any of the joints in the toes that are troublesome. The causes may be divided into four groups: Anatomical, e.g. a particularly long toe; Biomechanical, i.e. how the body moves; Style of footwear; Bad habits.

Bursitis: Acute or chronic bursitis is an inflammation of a bursa. A bursa is a saclike cavity filled with synovial fluid and located at tissue sites where friction occurs, such as where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences so allowing for normal movement and reducing friction between moving parts of the body. Generally it is difficult to determine the actual cause. The most common sites are the back of the heel, around the knee, and in the hip as well elbow and shoulder.

Collapsing Ankles: The most common causes of collapsed ankles are either a hypermobile inside arch of the foot or misalignment of the muscle contractions of the leg. It is resolved by realigning the leg and gradually stabilizing all the joints in the leg and foot.

Bunion: A Bunion (Hallux valgus) is considered to be a medial deviation of the first metatarsal shaft and lateral deviation and/or rotation of the big toe (hallux) with or without medial soft tissue enlargement of the first metatarsal head. This condition can also lead to pain in the joint with movement and/or difficulty with footwear. This condition can arise for a variety of reasons from, ill fitting footwear to a musculoskeletal imbalance or as a consequence of systemic disorder. Usually pain is the main reason for seeking help though occasionally it’s an inability to find comfortable footwear

Hip aches and pains: These issues tend to arise when the range of motion of hip joint is markedly reduced. The causative factors are markedly variable and often interlinked. Poor posture in sitting standing and moving is a common connection between most of them be it an injury from an accident, a familial trait or simply bad habits. A thorough assessment which totally involves the individual both from an understanding and implementation perspective is essential.

Aching feet: Aching feet usually arise due to intrinsic muscles (Muscles with origin and insertion in the feet) or extrinsic muscles having to work harder than normal to stabilize the feet. In essence the muscles in question are suffering from fatigue. Orthotics work to gradually stabilize how the feet are working so that the function returns to normal.

Swollen feet: There are numerous causes of swelling in the feet. Circulation is impaired. This could be from a narrowing in an artery in the leg or possibly an indication of a heart problem to wearing socks in which the elastic is too tight above the ankle. It is important that your GP arranges for all the usual tests to be done. After that the focus is to make changes so that the muscles in the legs and thighs have to contract more intensely so widening the pressure differential between the arterial supply into the feet and the venous return out.

Cold feet: There are a variety of causes which induce cold feet. These range from inappropriate clothing to peripheral vascular diseases like Raynaud’s disease. The approach is multi-factorial; from the insulating properties of the orthotics through to changes in an individual’s way of dressing.

Calf pain: This is pain arising at the back of the leg between the back of the knee down to the in the insertion point of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneum i.e. the heel bone of the foot. Usually a muscle has gone into intense spam due to a functional misalignment arising from how the whole leg was moving. Unexpected accidents e.g. falling over, being knocked off balance, stumbling etc. If the forces involved are excessive muscles my tear or rupture.

Plantar Fasciitis: Plantar Fasciitis is the term which is applied when pain is experienced in the middle of a foot. There are a variety of causes, all of which invariably involves over loading the forefoot in someway. The end result is damage at the surface of a bone which invokes an inflammatory reaction and hence pain due to primarily swelling in the area which has been affected.

Knee pain: This is pain arising within the knee or around the knee. Identifying the precise location, duration, and intensity is essential. Injuries arising accidents or bad habits are common in acute cases. Unless an individual takes a responsible active role in ensuring complete recovery then frequently knee pain becomes chronic which may lead to constant pain due to structural damage to the actual joint itself. Addressing the underlying issues that determine how the legs are aligned and function are of prime importance.

Tight Hamstrings: These are three muscles that arise in the buttock and insert below the knee. The most common reason for them to shorten and go tight is the fact that an extremely high percentage of people have very sedentary life style i.e. sitting too often and for too long. The situation is exacerbated by poor posture. From an ergonomic perspective, chairs, desks and tables are often not the correct height and size for an individual hence compensations are made which over time lead to problems like tight hamstrings.

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